Tag Archives: cows

Maize farming demonstrations with the Farm Shop Trust near Ngecha, Kenya

Amber Strong
August 20, 2015
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Myself and my colleagues, Morwenna Roberts and Claire Reigate joined Farm Shop Trust Extension Officers (in agronomy and livestock health) Naomi and Casty to give demonstration training at a farm near Ngecha. I first visited the demonstration farm in Ngecha on the 22nd of July and fifteen farmers attended. We were joined by Rosemary from the Ministry of Agriculture, and Beatrice from Farm Concern, an NGO that links farmers to market traders.

Farmers look on at the Maize planting demonstration near Ngecha
Farmers look on at the Maize planting demonstration near Ngecha

The Farm Shop Trust provides regular agricultural training days for farmers at locations across Kiambu County, Kenya. If farmers are educated on how best to farm a wide variety of crops they are more likely to produce higher yields, farm more efficiently and sustainably on the land available to them and be able to sell their produce for higher prices. Farming is the backbone of the Kenyan economy and training in efficient smallholder farming methods will help more people to thrive.

Farmers look on at the Maize planting demonstration near Ngecha
Farmers look on at the Maize planting demonstration near Ngecha

Farm Shop Trust staff led instruction for a group of fifteen local farmers on how to measure out the correct distances needed between maize seeds; how deep to make the holes and how to use the fertiliser correctly so that the seeds are not burnt by it. The training was based around using a fertiliser product, and planting F1 Hybrid Maize. The farmers pegged out the row, then used bits of plastic tied to the wire to mark out the 25 cm spacing, then dug a hole, put in 3 container caps full of fertiliser, covered it in a bit of soil then added the maize seed and covered the hole completely. They repeated this for 2 rows, then planted a row of maize without fertilizer so that the farmers can compare the difference.

Maize rows are measured out at the demonstration farm near Ngecha
Maize rows are measured out at the demonstration farm near Ngecha

At the end of the session farmers were asked to fill out feedback forms and identify areas in which they would like further training. Farmers requested instruction in dairy and poultry production, specifically calf rearing. Rearing animals for milk, meat and eggs would involve high initial investment by farmers, and continual cost of inputs for the maintenance of animal health, though promising higher profit margins.

Cows at the demonstration farm near Ngecha
Cows at the demonstration farm near Ngecha

I visited Ngecha again with Morwenna Roberts and Casty on the 12th of August, twenty-one days after the seeds were planted. When we arrived at the Demo field we saw that the maize seeds had successfully sprouted and grown to around seven inches in height.

Maize seedlings at three weeks old
Maize seedlings at three weeks old

The Farm Shop Trust had also previously instructed the demo farmer to plant pepper plant seeds and cover the patch with feed bags to protect the germinating seeds from the morning cold. When we removed the feed bags on the 12th of August the pepper plant seeds had sprouted successfully and in four weeks the farmer will transplant the seedlings so that the plants have space to grow and that he can sell some of the plants.

Morwenna Roberts and the demonstration farmer pick weeds from between pepper plant seedlings
Morwenna Roberts and the demonstration farmer pick weeds from between pepper plant seedlings

We then drove to a near-by tomato greenhouse where this group of farmers regularly meet and Casty reviewed what had been done three weeks ago and that this had resulted in plenty of healthy maize seedlings. Casty then handed out pens and paper to the ten farmers attending the training and gave a lesson on the importance of record keeping in farming because it enables the farmer to record exactly what they did. Farmers were instructed to record for livestock; symptoms of their sick animal, how long the animal had had those symptoms, what they had treated the animal with, how strong a dose they used and what the results where. For crops, they were taught to record the date of planting, spacing of planting, if fertiliser was used and if so, how it had been prepared. These habits were recommended so that if a farmer had a healthy crop they knew what they should do again next time and if the was a problem they had a better chance of identifying what had gone wrong.

Farmers attending the second demonstration day at Ngecha
Farmers attending the second demonstration day at Ngecha

After this lesson there was a group Q and A session where the farmers explained the current crop or livestock difficulties they were experiencing ad Casty explained the changes or treatments they needed to make. Casty explained de-worming procedures, how to identify Trichominiasis in cows and how to deter pests on tomato plants with either pesticides or diluted rabbit urine.

Farm Shop Agricultural Extension Officer Naomi, leading the Q and A session
Farm Shop Agricultural Extension Officer Naomi, leading the Q and A session

Farmers left with practical advice on the current agricultural problems they were facing. If farmers do well and make more profit they are more likely to be able to afford more than the most basic and cheapest agricultural products.

 

 

If you would like to know more about Plymouth University’s work with the Farm Shop Trust in Kenya please feel free to contact me at amber.strong@plymouth.ac.uk

Amber Strong -Network Advisor in Entrepreneurship
Amber Strong -Network Advisor in Entrepreneurship

Farmers and the prevention of Mastitis in Kiambu County

On Tuesday 4th August 2015, I (Dr. Kennedy) visited farmers around Kiamwangi area in Kiambu County. This is one of the regions in which the Farm Shop continues to serve farmers by providing them with access to high quality products through their agro (agricultural products) dealer shop in the region. In addition, Farm Shop also provides a host of extension services through their technical regional representatives.

The farmers in the area had requested that I visit their farms and consult on a wide range of challenges affecting them, with Mastitis being top on the agenda. Kiamwangi is a long distance off from our Farm Shop headquarters in Ndenderu, Kenya.  I had to board three ‘Matatus’(local busses) and several motorbikes as I moved from one farmer’s home to another in the region. Most of the farmers I visited were struggling with subclinical mastitis which I diagnosed through a diagnostic test known as the California Mastitis Test (CMT). This is an easy cow-side test that can easily diagnose Mastitis in a herd with a history of decreased milk production. After diagnosis, I advised each farmer on the various methods of control and prevention as well as therapeutic measures they could employ to counter this problem.

Dr Kennedy checking for mastitis
Dr Kennedy checking for mastitis

Mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary gland or udder characterized by changes in milk and the udder. It is a complex disease caused by any combination of; bacteria, fungi, viruses, yeast, physical and chemical injury to the udder. It is one of the most common problems I have encountered affecting small holder farmers around Kiambu County, Kenya. It leads to loss in production when milk is discarded for being unfit for consumption due to contamination, reduced milk yields, veterinary costs, and culling or death of the animal. Prolonged use of antibiotics for management ultimately becomes counterproductive due to the development of bacterial resistance, thus prevention is left as the only viable option. Apart from the various control strategies, I also taught the farmers about what causes the disease and how it is transmitted.

Dairy Cow in Kenya
Dairy Cow in Kenya

Prevention of Mastitis achieves good results if it is looked at on a farm-wide basis. High levels of hygiene are fundamental when it comes to prevention. While your animals are grazing in the field, the teats should be clean and not soiled with any dirt. Clean housing and good milking techniques help to ensure that the environment stops build-up of pathogens to avoid injury to teats and the udder. In summary, prevention entails:

  • Maintaining hygienic environment in the milking parlor, proper drainage in the cattle pens and proper waste disposal.
  • Avoiding sharp objects in the environment which could injure cow’s teats and udder.
  • Avoiding dirt accumulation around the udder by clipping hairs regularly.
  • Maintaining appropriate milking techniques that entail squeezing and not pulling the teats while milking.
  • Disinfecting teats before and after milking by teat dipping.
  • Wiping the teats using separate towels for each cow to avoid cross infection.
  • Drying off the cow approximately 60 days before expected calving using dry cow therapy so as to prevent infection.
  • Milking healthy animals’ first and infected ones last. New animals should be milked separately.

 

If you would like to know more about my work with the Farm Shop Trust in Kenya please feel free to contact me on kennedykeya@gmail.com